Publications & Research

Challenges and Regulatory Considerations in the Acoustic Measurement of High-Frequency (>20 MHz) Ultrasound

This article examines the challenges associated with making acoustic output measurements at high ultrasound frequencies (>20 MHz) in the context of regulatory considerations contained in the US Food and Drug Administration industry guidance document for diagnostic ultrasound devices.

Error sources in the acoustic measurement, including hydrophone calibration and spatial averaging, nonlinear distortion, and mechanical alignment, are evaluated, and the limitations of currently available acoustic measurement instruments are discussed. An uncertainty analysis of acoustic intensity and power measurements is presented, and an example uncertainty calculation is done on a hypothetical 30-MHz high-frequency ultrasound system.

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